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These are scaffolds—temporary supports—that provide students with organizational systems for learning content.

But even more than that, an understanding of memory systems has profound implications for instruction, which include creating systematic and intentional scaffolds of students' understanding rather than leaving them alone to discover information independently.

Automaticity is dependent on a learner's working memory.

Despite attempts to cram lots of information into a brain all at once, neuroscience research confirms Miller's (1956) finding that humans can work with about seven new and previously unassociated bits of information at a time.

Thankfully, there are things we can do to ensure that students learn.

At the most basic level, we have to get those things into students' working memory and then have them use those things so that they move to long-term memory.

That's not to say that students should not work together in collaborative learning; they should.

Tools such as concept maps, word webs, and graphic organizers provide students with schemas that they can use to organize information (Guthrie, Wigfield, & Barbosa, 2004).Interestingly, this limitation is removed when information from long-term memory is moved back into working memory to complete a task (Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995).Again, this finding has important implications for teacher behaviors.All of the theorists and researchers we have focused on thus far have one important thing in common: they're trying to influence what's inside the learner's brain. We acknowledge the concerns about relying too heavily on brain science (Bruer, 1997).For example, Willingham (2008) says, "I don't understand what my computer hardware is doing as I type this reply, but if I did, that knowledge would not change how I typed or what I wrote" (p. But we think Willingham understands something more important about his computer hard drive—namely, the best ways to store and retrieve information. As teachers, we have to be aware of the best ways to help students store and retrieve information. As has been said before, "worksheets don't grow dendrites" (Tate, 2003).

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